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Critical Reasoning - Strengthen Questions of Critical Reasoning - I Module

Here are the ten official questions which are discussed in detail in the Critical Reasoning - I module at the end of the Strengthen Questions section. Shout out in the comments section if you have any doubts in the explanations. 

 

Strengthen Question No. 1

 

People who have spent a lot of time in contact with animals often develop animal-induced allergies, some of them quite serious. In a survey of current employees in major zoos, about 30 percent had animal-induced allergies. Based on this sample, experts conclude that among members of the general population who have spent a similarly large amount of time in close contact with animals, the percentage with animal-induced allergies is not 30 percent but substantially more.

Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest grounds for the experts’ conclusion?


(A) A zoo employee who develops a serious animal-induced allergy is very likely to switch to some other occupation.

(B) A zoo employee is more likely than a person in the general population to keep one or more animal pets at home.

(C) The percentage of the general population whose level of exposure to animals matches that of a zoo employee is quite small.

(D) Exposure to domestic pets is, on the whole, less likely to cause animal induced allergy than exposure to many of the animals kept in zoos.

(E) Zoo employees seldom wear protective gear when they handle animals in their care.

 

 

Strengthen Question No. 2

 

The traditional treatment of strep infections has been a seven-day course of antibiotics, either penicillin or erythromycin. However, since many patients stop taking those drugs within three days, reinfection is common in cases where those drugs are prescribed. A new antibiotic requires only a three-day course of treatment. Therefore, reinfection will probably be less common in cases where the new antibiotic is prescribed than in cases where either penicillin or erythromycin is prescribed.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) Some of the people who are allergic to penicillin are likely to be allergic to the new antibiotic.

(B) A course of treatment with the new antibiotic costs about the same as a course of treatment with either penicillin or erythromycin.

(C) The new antibiotic has been shown to be effective in eradicating bacterial infections other than strep.

(D) Some physicians have already begun to prescribe the new antibiotic instead of penicillin or erythromycin for the treatment of some strep infections.

(E) Regardless of whether they take a traditional antibiotic or the new one, most patients feel fully recovered after taking the drug for three days.

 

 

Strengthen Question No. 3

 

In January of last year the Moviemania chain of movie theatres started popping its popcorn in canola oil, instead of the less healthful coconut oil that it had been using until then. Now Moviemania is planning to switch back, saying that the change has hurt popcorn sales. That claim is false, however, since according to Moviemania’s own sales figures, Moviemania sold 5 percent more popcorn last year than in the previous year.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the argument against Moviemania’s claim?

(A) Total sales of all refreshments at Moviemania’s movie theatres increased by less than 5 percent last year.

(B) Moviemania makes more money on food and beverages sold at its theatres than it does on sales of movie tickets.

(C) Moviemania’s customers prefer the taste of popcorn popped in coconut oil to that of popcorn popped in canola oil.

(D) Total attendance at Moviemania’s movie theatres was more than 20 percent higher last year than the year before.

(E) The year before last, Moviemania experienced a 10 percent increase in popcorn sales over the previous year.

 

 

Strengthen Question No. 4

 

Smithtown University’s fund-raisers succeeded in getting donations from 80 percent of the potential donors they contacted. This success rate, exceptionally high for university fund-raisers, does not indicate that they were doing a good job. On the contrary, since the people most likely to donate are those who have donated in the past, good fund-raisers constantly try less-likely prospects in an effort to expand the donor base. The high success rate shows insufficient canvassing effort.

Which of the following, if true, provides more support for the argument?


(A) Smithtown University’s fund-raisers were successful in their contacts with potential donors who had never given before about as frequently as were fund-raisers for other universities in their contacts with such people.

(B) This year the average size of the donations to Smithtown University from new donors when the university’s fund-raisers had contacted was larger than the average size of donations from donors who had given to the university before.

(C) This year most of the donations that came to Smithtown University from people who had previously donated to it were made without the university’s fund-raisers having made any contact with the donors.

(D) The majority of the donations that fund-raisers succeeded in getting for Smithtown University this year were from donors who had never given to the university before.

(E) More than half of the money raised by Smithtown University’s fund-raisers came from donors who had never previously donated to the university.

 

 

Strengthen Question No. 5

 

In general, jobs are harder to get in times of economic recession because many businesses cut back operations. However, any future recessions in Vargonia will probably not reduce the availability of teaching jobs at government-funded schools. This is because Vargonia has just introduced a legal requirement that education in government-funded schools be available, free of charge, to all Vargonian children regardless of the state of the economy, and that current student-teacher ratios not be exceeded. 

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument? 


(A) The current student-teacher ratio at Vargonia's government-funded schools is higher than it was during the most recent period of economic recession. 

(B) During recent periods when the Vargonian economy has been strong, almost 25 percent of Vargonian children have attended privately funded schools, many of which charge substantial fees. 

(C) Nearly 20 percent more teachers are currently employed in Vargonia's government-funded schools than had been employed in those schools in the period before the last economic recession. 

(D) Teachers in Vargonia's government-funded schools are well paid relative to teachers in most privately funded schools in Vargonia, many of which rely heavily on part-time teachers. 

(E) During the last economic recession in Vargonia, the government permanently closed a number of the schools that it had funded

 


Strengthen Question No. 6

 

Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly contain millions of electronic switches. Unfortunately, electronic switches that are this small cannot withstand intense radiation. Micro-Mechanics plans to produce a chip that, because it uses only microscopic mechanical switches, will be invulnerable to radiation damage. The switches will, however, be slower than electronic switches and the chip will contain only 12,000 switches.

For there to be a market for Micro-Mechanics’ chip as a result of the apparent advantage described above, each of the following would have to be true EXCEPT:

(A) There will be applications in which the speed attainable by an electronic switch is not essential.

(B) Switches used on electronic chips that contain only 12,000 switches are more vulnerable to radiation damage than the switches on Micro-Mechanics’ chip will be.

(C) There will be applications for computer chips in environments where the chips may have to survive intense radiation.

(D) Some devices in which computer chips will be used will have other components that will be able to function during or after exposure to radiation.

(E) Manufacturers are able to protect electronic computer chips against exposure to intense radiation, where this protection is necessary.

 

 

Strengthen Question No. 7

 

Each year red-winged blackbirds stop in a certain region of Midland Province on their spring and fall migrations. In the fall, they eat a significant portion of the province’s sunflower crop. This year Midland farmers sought permits to set out small amounts of poisoned rice during the blackbirds’ spring stop in order to reduce the fall blackbird population. Some residents voiced concern that the rice could threaten certain species of rare migratory birds. Nevertheless, the wildlife agency approved the permits.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to justify the wildlife agency’s approval of the permits, given the concerns voiced by some residents?


(A) In the region where the red-winged blackbirds stop, they are the first birds to be present in the spring.

(B) The poison that farmers want to use does not kill birds but rather makes them incapable of producing viable eggs.

(C) Since rice is not raised in Midland Province, few species of birds native to the province normally eat rice.

(D) Without the permit, any farmers shown to have set out poison for the blackbirds would be heavily fined. 

(E) The poison that farmers got approval to use has no taste or smell that would make it detectable by birds.

 

 

Strengthen Question No. 8

 

Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseachers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?


(A) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories.

(B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

(C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

(D) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

(E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

 

 

Strengthen Question No. 9

 

Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to humans by deer ticks. Generally, deer ticks pick up the bacterium while in the larval stage by feeding on infected white-footed mice. However, certain other species on which the larvae feed do not harbor the bacterium. If the population of these species increased, more of the larvae would be feeding on uninfected hosts, so the number of ticks acquiring the bacterium would likely decline. 


Which of the following, if true, strengthens the argument?


(A) Ticks do not suffer any adverse consequences from carrying the bacterium that causes lyme disease in humans. 

(B) There are no known cases of a human's contracting lyme disease through contact with white-footed mice

(C) A deer tick feeds only once while in the larval stage

(D) A single host animal can be the source of bacteria for many tick larvae.

(E) None of the other species on which deer tick larvae feed harbor other bacteria that ticks transmit to humans.

 

 

Strengthen Question No. 10

 

Archaeologists in Michigan have excavated a Native American camp near Dumaw Creek. Radiocarbon dating of animal bones found at the site indicates that the camp dates from some time between 1605 and 1755. However, the camp probably dates to no later than 1630, since no European trade goods were found at the site, and European traders were active in the region from the 1620's onward.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?


(A) Due to trade among Native Americans, some European trade goods would have reached the area before the European traders themselves did.

(B) At all camps in the region that have been reliably dated to the late 1620's, remains of European trade goods have been found.

(C) The first European trade goods to reach the area would have been considered especially valuable and preserved as much as possible from loss or destruction.

(D) The first European traders in the area followed soon after the first European explorers.

(E) The site is that of a temporary camp that would have been used seasonally for a few years and then abandoned.

 

 

 

 

 

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