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Critical Reasoning - Assumption Questions of Critical Reasoning - I Module

Here are the ten official questions which are discussed in detail in the Critical Reasoning - I module at the end of the Assumption Questions section. Shout out in the comments section if you have any doubts in the explanations.

 

Assumption Question No. 1

 

Kitchen magazine plans to license the use of its name by a line of cookware. For a magazine, licensing the use of its name for products involves some danger, since if the products disappoint consumers, the magazine's reputation suffers, with consequent reduction in circulation and advertising. However, experts have evaluated the cookware and found it superior to all other cookware advertised in Kitchen. Therefore, Kitchen can collect its licensing fees without endangering its other revenues.

 

The argument above assumes which of the following?

 

(A) No other line of cookware is superior to that which will carry the Kitchen name.

(B) Kitchen will not license the use of its name for any products other than the line of cookware.

(C) Makers of cookware will not find Kitchen a less attractive advertising vehicle because the magazine's name is associated with a competing product.

(D) Consumers who are not regular readers of Kitchen magazine will be attracted to the cookware by the Kitchen name.

(E) Kitchen is one of the most prestigious cooking-related magazines.

 

 

Assumption Question No. 2

 

With a record number of new companies starting up in Derderia and with previously established companies adding many jobs, a record number of new jobs were created last year in the Derderian economy. This year, previously established companies will not be adding as many new jobs overall as such companies added last year. Therefore, unless a record number of companies start up this year, Derderia will not break its record for new jobs created.

 

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

 

(A) Each year, new companies starting up create more new jobs overall than do previously established companies.

(B) Companies established last year will not add a greater number of jobs overall this year than they did last year.

(C) This year, the new companies starting up will not provide substantially more jobs per company than did new companies last year.

(D) This year, the overall number of jobs created by previously established companies will be less than the overall number of jobs lost at those companies.

(E) The number of jobs created in the Derderian economy last year was substantially larger than the number of jobs lost last year.

 

 

Assumption Question No. 3

 

In 1992 outlaw fishing boats began illegally harvesting lobsters from the territorial waters of the country of Belukia. Soon after, the annual tonnage of lobster legally harvested in Belukian waters began declining; in 1996, despite there being no reduction in the level of legal lobster fishing activity, the local catch was 9,000 tons below pre-1992 levels. It is therefore highly likely that the outlaw fishing boats harvested about 9,000 tons of lobster illegally that year. 

 

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends? 

 

(A) The illegal lobster harvesting was not so extensive that the population of catchable lobsters in Belukia’s territorial waters had sharply declined by 1996.

(B) The average annual lobster catch, in tons, of an outlaw fishing boat has increased steadily since 1992.

(C) Outlaw fishing boats do not, as a group, harvest more lobsters than do licensed lobster-fishing boats.

(D) The annual legal lobster harvest in Belukia in 1996 was not significantly less than 9,000 tons.

(E) A significant proportion of Belukia’s operators of licensed lobster-fishing boats went out of business between 1992 and 1996.

 

 

Assumption Question No. 4

 

State tax officials, having had considerable success in persuading delinquent individuals to pay their back taxes through the incentive of reduced penalties, plan to adopt a similar approach in order to collect past due taxes from corporations.

 

The state tax plan outlined above assumes that

 

(A) federal tax officials will not attempt to collect back taxes in the same manner

(B) stiff fines are not the only way to collect past due corporate taxes

(C) corporations tend to be delinquent in their taxes for the same length of time that individual taxpayers are

(D) past due taxes cannot be collected without a reduction in penalties

(E) penalties for delinquent corporations will have to be reduced by the same percentage as were penalties for delinquent individuals

 

 

Assumption Question No. 5

 

“People Meters”, new devices attached to a relatively small sample of TV sets to determine how many viewers watch programs, show smaller audiences for programs on the major television networks than did the previously used methods of telephone surveys and viewer diaries. Network officials argue that the lower number result from the fact that the people meters, which are located primarily in private homes, fail to take account of many young adults who regularly watch those programs in college dormitories and at military bases.

 

The network officials' argument depends on which of the following assumption?

 

(A) People meters have been installed primarily on TV sets belonging to persons whose viewing habits were monitored in the past through telephone surveys and viewer dairies.

(B) Those programs for which people meters have found smaller audiences than did the previously used sampling methods are watched almost entirely by young adults.

(C) The previously used method of measuring TV audiences more adequately allowed for the viewers in college dormitories and at military bases.

(D) The households where people meters are located will have to be changed over time, as people drop out of the sample and others replace them.

(E) As a group, young adults maintain an intense loyalty to the same few televised program.

 

 

Assumption Question No. 6

 

Excavations of the Roman city of Sepphoris have uncovered numerous detailed mosaics depicting several readily identifiable animal species : a hare, a partridge, and various Mediterranean fish. Oddly, most of the species represented did not live in the Sepphoris region when these mosaics were created. Since identical motifs appear in mosaics found in other Roman cities, however, the mosaics of Sepphoris were very likely created by traveling artisans from some other part of the Roman Empire.

 

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

 

(A) The Sepphoris mosaics are not composed exclusively of types of stones found naturally in the Sepphoris area.

(B) There is no single region to which all the species depicted in the Sepphoris mosaics are native.

(C) No motifs appear in the Sepphoris mosaics that do not also appear in the mosaics of some other Roman city.

(D) All of the animal figures in the Sepphoris mosaics are readily identifiable as representations of known species.

(E) There was not a common repertory of mosaic designs with which artisans who lived in various parts of the Roman Empire were familiar.

 

 

Assumption Question No. 7

 

In the year following an eight-cent increase in the federal tax on a pack of cigarettes, sales of cigarettes fell ten percent. In contrast, in the year prior to the tax increase, sales had fallen one percent. The volume of cigarette sales is therefore strongly related to the after-tax price of a pack of cigarettes.

 

The argument above requires which of the following assumptions?

 

(A) During the year following the tax increase, the pretax price of a pack of cigarettes did not increase by as much as it had during the year prior to the tax increase.

(B) The one percent fall in cigarette sales in the year prior to the tax increase was due to a smaller tax increase.

(C) The pretax price of a pack of cigarettes gradually decreased throughout the year before and after the tax increase

(D) For the year following the tax increase, the pretax price of a pack of cigarettes was not eight or more cents lower than it had been in the previous year.

(E) As the after-tax price of a pack of cigarettes rises, the pretax price also rises.

 

 

Assumption Question No. 8

 

Political advocacy groups have begun to use information services to disseminate information that is then accessed by the public via personal computer. Since many groups are thus able to bypass traditional news sources, whose reporting is selective, and to present their political views directly to the public, information services present a more balanced picture of the complexities of political issues than any traditional news source presents.

 

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument above depends?

 

(A) Information services are accessible to enough people to ensure that political advocacy groups can use these services to reach as large a percentage of the public as they could through traditional news sources.

(B) People could get a thorough understanding of a particular political issue by sorting through information provided by several traditional news sources, each with differing editorial biases.

(C) Information on political issues disseminated through information services does not come almost entirely from advocacy groups that share a single bias.

(D) Traditional news sources seldom report the views of political advocacy groups accurately.

(E) Most people who get information on political issues from newspapers and other traditional news sources can readily identify the editorial biases of those sources.

 

 

Assumption Question No. 9

 

Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.

 

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

 

(A) People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.

(B) There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.

(C) Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa.

(D) Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are.

(E) Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.
 

 

Assumption Question No. 10

 

Several critics have claimed that any contemporary poet who writes formal poetry—poetry that is rhymed and metered—is performing a politically conservative act. This is plainly false. Consider Molly Peacock and Marilyn Hacker, two contemporary poets whose poetry is almost exclusively formal and yet who are themselves politically progressive feminists.


The conclusion drawn above follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?


(A) No one who is a feminist is also politically conservative.

(B) No poet who writes unrhymed or unmetered poetry is politically conservative.

(C) No one who is politically progressive is capable of performing a politically conservative act.

(D) Anyone who sometimes writes poetry that is not politically conservative never writes poetry that is politically conservative.

(E) The content of a poet’s work, not the work’s form, is the most decisive factor in determining what political consequences, if any, the work will have.

 

 

Bonus Assumption Question

 

Educator: Traditional classroom education is ineffective because education in such an environment is not truly a social process and only social processes can develop students’ insights. In the traditional classroom, the teacher acts from outside the group and interaction between teachers and students is rigid and artificial.


The educator’s conclusion follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?


(A) Development of insight takes place only if genuine education also occurs.

(B) Classroom education is effective if the interaction between teachers and students is neither rigid nor artificial.

(C) All social processes involve interaction that is neither rigid nor artificial.

(D) Education is not effective unless it leads to the development of insight.

(E) The teacher does not act from outside the group in a nontraditional classroom.

 

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